“Nationalism” (Essay)

To define the controversial political ideology ‘Nationalism’, we must first define ‘Nation’. It is a community of people linked by race, religion, language, or geographical location. Nationalism is the ideology that such a community forms a separate sociopolitical group; nationalists seek to safeguard the interests of this particular group, as well as take precautions necessary to preserve what they see as its distinct identity. Nationalism as a phenomenon can be found in virtually every society in the modern world, but scholars suggest the roots of modern nationalism are European. It rose to prominence after the Napoleonic period. As the nation-states of Europe came into their own, it was necessary for their success to have a shared belief that could hold their people together. The 18th and 19th centuries were also a time of expansionist tactics and empire-building. While it certainly lent ferocity to their own nationalist sentiments, colonialism is regarded by some as the reason for the spread of the ideology to non-Western societies. A lack of non-Western classical texts on the subject written in the pre-colonial era is cited as evidence for this. I disagree, and in this essay I shall attempt to discuss the place of nationalism in the subcontinent, specifically Pakistan. Asian cultures, particularly those found in the subcontinent, are very strongly collectivist. The importance of the whole is stressed; the individual is important only because of the purpose he or she serves in the betterment of the whole. This concept is clearly seen in early Islamic texts and even the Quran itself: Muslims are a part of one nation, the umma that does not recognize any secular divide. The Quran states that God has divided people into distinct groups so that the identity of each may be preserved. This can be seen as laying part of the groundwork for the nationalist movements that led to the independence of the subcontinent and the simultaneous formation of Pakistan.

European thinkers assumed the philosophy of nationalism would fade into incongruity in the 20th century, but the First World War proved them wrong; not only that, but the period also turned out be a golden age for nationalist movements in British India. It motivated the people like never before; it brought the nexus of Indian identity away from the throne and focused on the common people. In some ways, it created that identity; the subcontinent is a land history shows to have been invaded many times, an ancient melting pot of cultures spread by the sword. From the Aryans to the Mughals, all the rulers were of foreign descent. Yet, only the British faced stiff opposition. It cannot be doubted that nationalist movements played a significant part in the perception of people. The two-nation theory, the Aligarh movement are examples of the strong influences affecting people in the era. The effects did not die out when the ‘stimulus’ of British rule was removed. They can still be seen in policy-making and national aims. Pakistan has lost many soldiers and precious decades on the issue of Kashmir. It has served as a propaganda tool and a direct influence on government policies: trade with India, the political “other”, our perennial rival. Similar sentiments can be seen reflected in Indian policies and media, despite Mahatma Gandhi’s own views. Both countries have been in a prolonged stand-off with each other for generations now and have also fought wars. ‘National spirit’, as psychological support, has helped keep morale high during such times.

That same national spirit is found not just in the political sphere of Pakistani life, but also in the social and personal. Patriotism is a considered a virtue. The media plays an active role in perpetuating this view, but an analysis of school textbooks also reveals just how strongly nationalist ideologies are inculcated in the average Pakistani. Events such as August 14 (Independence Day) and September 6 (Defense Day) are celebrated with fervor, even if the intensity of it varies. This in turn encourages civic values for the good of the nation: hard work, honesty, social awareness and the like. According to Lipson, nationalism is correlated with development in the arts and other hallmarks of culture. It also promotes unity, and provides motivation for the preservation of indigenous cultures. Even in the dry world of economics we can see markets derive benefits from nationalist measures that favor local merchants in various ways. Put together, it seems nationalism is a required element for the optimum functioning of human societies.

But is nationalism really like such a positive element?  Read more

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“Aeschylus: Prometheus Bound and Other Plays” (Book Report)

Drama is thought to have originated as a form of worship.  People would reenact their hunts, as a form of communication and as worship.  It is obvious early drama occupied an important, if limited, niche in human society as a religious act. As society progressed, this became more organized. The ancient Egyptians used the art form as way to celebrate royal coronations in addition to important religious holidays.  However, when we think of classical theater, the ancient Greeks come to mind. It is in this culture that we see Drama most readily accepted. In the 6th century B.C., a state-ordained annual drama festival was arranged in honor of the Greek god of wine, Dionysus. As the golden age of Greek civilization dawned, the arts flourished and this led to the emergence of some of the greatest dramatists in human history. Aeschylus was one of them, the first of the Greek tragedians.

Born into a noble family of Athenian origin in 525 B.C, Aeschylus fought in the battle of Marathon before dedicating himself to playwriting. He made many important innovations in the field, including the introduction of a second character; before that, dialog between actors was not seen in drama. He wrote more than seventy plays in his lifetime but unfortunately, only seven have survived. Of these, the book includes four.

Prometheus Bound

Roman-era relief showing Prometheus creating humanity under the watchful eye of Athena
Prometheus creates humanity as Athena looks on. (Courtesy: Wikipedia)

Prometheus, the Traitor, was dragged before Zeus. He cast pleading eyes towards his friends and peers, the gods of Olympus, but they looked away. Why should they help him now when he had betrayed them all? Why should they forgive him for that which was unforgivable? The Titan was forced to his knees. He braced himself as he looked up at Zeus, one final act of haughty rebellion. “Prometheus, you stole Fire.” He nodded, his silent gaze never leaving the face of the king of gods. Zeus’s eyes narrowed. “And you gave it to the mortals, when you knew I wanted to destroy them and create a perfect race in their place.” “I did.” Prometheus’s statement rang out in the court; his tone lacked both guilt and humility. Zeus’s face colored as his clearly vexed voice rang out: “And in doing so, you have not only sealed their fates but yours as well. You will be bound to a rock, lashed by the elements for millennia, tormented by the pain of flesh and soul, until such a time that you may learn the meaning of regret.”  Prometheus smiled ruefully as the deliverers of his punishment, Strength and Violence, began to take him away. His smile angered Zeus even more; it was no longer just pride that bothered him. As the titan of Foreknowledge and Prophecy disappeared from view, the king of the gods couldn’t help but feel he had just played a part in some plan beyond even his own understanding. Read more